Scientists first realised the potential of tokamaks to achieve fusion conditions back in the 1960s. The tokamak is the most heavily researched and best understood path to fusion energy.
In the 1980s, one of our founders, Alan Sykes, who was working at the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, did a theoretical study that revealed modifying the shape of the tokamak would have a large impact on performance.
By moving from a doughnut-shaped plasma to a cored apple-shaped plasma, the plasma is contained more efficiently.
Combining the increased efficiency of the spherical tokamak with the improved magnetic confinement made possible by high-field HTS magnet technology, provides the most viable route to cost-effective fusion energy in compact machines.